Colombia a Mega-diverse country

A select group of nations are considered Mega-diverse countries, due to they possess the greatest amount of diversity of living beings with almost 70% of the global total species. Our beautiful and beloved country owns more than 62,800 species described in its territory so far, what places it as the second most biodiverse country in the world after Brazil with only one seventh of its size.

Our species richness is amazing, we are the number one country in bird species on earth with more than 1,930 and 84 endemics to observe, in other words, almost 20% of the global diversity of birds inhabits this wonderful and magical territory; besides, Colombia is number one in orchids with 4.270 species, second in plants, amphibians, butterflies and fresh water fishes, third in palms and reptiles and fourth country with more mammals species in the world.

This enormous biodiversity is due in part to its tropical location, where the species richness is greater compared to other regions of the world. In addition to this, Colombia has a very complex topography composed by the Andes that is divided into three cordilleras, oriented from south to north that separate the jungles of Chocó, the inter-Andean valleys of Cauca and Magdalena, the eastern Llanos and the Amazon, these are some of the key factors that have been promoted the origin of this huge amount of  new species throughout time.

The Andes

The Andean Region has three cordilleras, the western, central and eastern Andes, each of them owns unique physical peculiarities and endemism, also a wide variety of climates and ecosystems between 300 to 5.300 meters above the sea level (989 to 17.400 feet above sea level) like tropical forests, oak forests, cloud forests and páramos, glaciers among others. It is one of the richest and most bird diverse regions in the planet and home of more than 800 bird species.


Sunset from Manizales, Central Andes.

The Amazon

The Amazon region is located in the south of the country, is the least populated and largest extension region in Colombia, where the largest extensions of tropical rainforest with better status of conservation hosts 750 species of birds. The warm and humid climate predominates with abundant rains during the year.


Bodoquero River, Caquetá.

The Caribbean

The Caribbean region is located in the northern part of the country, just on the coast of the Caribbean Sea, there you will find from desert areas and dry forest to rainforests in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, the highest coastal mountain range in the world and the largest center of continental endemism. In this region is possible to find approximately 700 species, of which 50 are considered regional specialties.


Sunset from Camarones, Guajira.

The Llanos

The Llanos or eastern planes are located in the east side of the country, it is part of the Orinoco River basin and formed by extensive plains, grasslands and savannas with close to 470 birds species, whom congregates by thousands around wetlands and flooding areas, one of the most spectacular scenes for nature lovers.


Cravo Norte, Arauca.

The Pacific and Chocó

The Pacific region is a narrow area between the pacific ocean and the western Andes, where the Choco jungles abounds and is one of the richest regions in terms of biodiversity. Warm weather predominates and the rainfall is probably the highest in the world with more than 8,000 mm per year. In this region are approximately 650 bird species to observe.


Buenaventura Port, Pacific Coast.

In Colombia we can visit and enjoy five main bio-regions.